02.Antennas and Propagation by John G. Webster (Editor) PDF

By John G. Webster (Editor)

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There are several ways to implement these components for communication systems. The type of phase shifter used in this process depends on the kind of antenna used, its costs, and power requirements. 1 ϫ 106 Shifters can provide fixed or variable phase shifts. Fixedphase shifters are usually extra transmission line sections of certain lengths to shift the phase with respect to the reference line. Variable shifters use mechanical or electronic means to 536 ANTENNA ACCESSORIES achieve a dynamical range of phase difference.

In this type, a plastic coating similar to a ribbon surrounds the conductors. These lines maintain uniform spacing between conductors. They are also less bulky, weigh less, and are easier to install. One common example of a flexible dielectric bifilar lines is the television receiving cable (called ribbon cable or two-wire cable). d Figure 24. The geometry of bifilar lines. In the molded plastic casing, the dielectric surrounding the lines has the shape of a ribbon. Because most of the field is inside the ribbon, the line is less susceptible to external influences.

The use of the direction cosine parameters u and v greatly simplifies the evaluation of beamwidth, bandwidth, and scanning parameters, so they are routinely used in array analysis. In these expressions, k¯ is the vector wave number or propagation constant of a plane wave radiating in the di- Figure 6. Generalized array configuration. rection of (θ, φ) and k = 2π/λ at wavelength λ. fn (θ, φ) is the far-field pattern of that nth element in the array environment. The multiplying factor exp(−jkR0 )/R0 is common to all expressions, and it will be suppressed hereafter.

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02.Antennas and Propagation by John G. Webster (Editor)

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