New PDF release: A DICTIONARY OF THE CHUJ (MAYAN) LANGUAGE

By Nicholas A. Hopkins

The lexical info said during this Chuj-English dictionary have been accumulated in the course of my
dissertation box paintings in 1964-65. My first publicity to the Chuj language was once in 1962, while I
went to Huehuetenango with Norman A. McQuown and Brent Berlin to assemble info on the
languages of the Cuchumatanes (Berlin et al. 1969). on the time i used to be a graduate scholar at the
University of Texas, hired as a examine assistant at the collage of Chicago's Chiapas
Study initiatives, directed by means of McQuown (McQuown and Pitt-Rivers 1970). operating via the
Maryknoll monks who have been then the Catholic clergy within the indigenous parts of Huehuetenango
and somewhere else in Guatemala, we recorded fabric, frequently within the kind of 100-word Swadesh
lists (for glottochronology), from numerous languages. The pattern integrated audio system of the
Chuj number of San Mateo Ixtatán (including the fellow who was once later to turn into my major
informant).

In the Spring of 1962, as box paintings for the venture wound down, I lower back to Austin to
finish drafting my Master's thesis, after which went directly to Chicago to start graduate reports in
Anthropology on the college of Chicago, with McQuown as my significant professor. I continued
to paintings on Chiapas venture fabrics in McQuown's documents, and in 1963 he assigned me the
Chuj language because the subject of my upcoming doctoral dissertation. Over the subsequent educational yr I
transcribed and analyzed the Chuj fabrics we had accrued and ready initial analyses
of the phonology and morphology of the language.
At the tip of the summer season of 1964, with help from a countrywide safety schooling Act
Foreign Language Fellowship, I went to Huehuetenango to start box paintings on Chuj. via the end
of August I had shrunk an informant (Francisco Santizo Andrés) and rented a home in
Huehuetenango, and we begun paintings in earnest. From then till September of 1965 we worked
an eight-hour day, six days every week, with occasional breaks whilst Francisco may cross domestic and I
would visit San Cristóbal de Las Casas, the place Berlin and different anthropologists and linguists
were engaged on their very own projects.

We started by way of reviewing my initial analyses and correcting my mistakes of
transcription, in addition to my phonemic research. even as Francisco discovered to transcribe
Chuj within the technical orthography that we used on the time (using ¢ for the alveolar affricate, c
with hachek for the alveopalatal affricate, x for the velar fricative, etc.). over the years I elicited
Terry Kaufman's Mayan Vocabulary Survey record (a roughly 1400-item questionnaire
covering easy vocabulary for Mesoamerican languages), and a Monosyllable Dictionary. The
latter, it seems that designed by means of Kaufman for the Chicago tasks, took good thing about the CVC
shape of such a lot Mayan roots, and concerned producing the record of attainable CVC combos and
attempting to elicit vocabulary in line with each one. One good thing about this system is that it elicits
vocabulary that will differently now not happen to both the informant or the investigator, including
onomatopoetic kinds in addition to hardly ever heard lexical iterms. We additionally started to list narratives.
Francisco may dictate a textual content to the tape recorder, operated by way of me, after which transcribe the tape
(see Hopkins 1980b). i might cross over the transcriptions and ask questions about the grammar
and lexicon. the entire lexical fabric accumulated by means of those ideas was once wear three x five slips and filed
in the lexical dossier that's the foundation for the current dictionary.

In February of 1965, the botanist Dennis E. Breedlove, who used to be operating in Chiapas with
Brent Berlin on Tzeltal ethnobotany (see Berlin, Breedlove and Raven 1974, Breedlove 1981),
came to Huehuetenango to assemble vegetation within the Cuchumatanes, together with specifically the Chujspeaking
region, the place there has been broad cloud woodland. We accumulated for 2 days close to San
Juan Ixcoy and the Captzin rocks, after which went directly to San Mateo Ixtatán for 4 extra days.
Francisco and Dennis accrued the specimens and Dennis recorded the botanical information,
including the locality, altitude, and so on. and comments at the crops. Francisco and that i recorded the Chuj
names of the crops and their ethnobotanical type (in phrases of the types 'anh, te',
ch'anh, and 'ixim). in accordance with my box notes we accumulated 1328 specimens in that box session
(Br 8465-9793). those info went into my lexical slip documents, and the result of this and other
collecting journeys have been later released (Breedlove and Hopkins 1970-71). The botanical IDs from
that e-book are included during this dictionary.
In may possibly of 1965 Francisco and that i performed a two-week dialect survey of the world in
which San Mateo Ixtatán Chuj used to be spoken, within the municipios of San Mateo Ixtatán and Nentón,
collecting fabric from 17 aldeas and town heart, a complete of 27 questionnaires. a number of texts
were recorded in this box season, and as traditional, the transcribed fabric was once incorporated
into my lexical records. on the finish of this dialect survey Francisco and that i gathered extra plant
specimens (H 0001-0038).

The choice of plant names encouraged me to gather animal names besides, and to take
notes on their local type. Absent box paintings at the venture, we consulted reference
books, together with Ibarra's Mamíferos de Guatemala, Alvarez del Toro's Reptiles de Chiapas, and
Peterson's box publications to the birds. a number of the names were amassed during the Mayan
Vocabulary Survey elicitation or the Monosyllable Dictionary. within the technique of recording this
information, i started to discover the Chuj process of gender markers that partitioned the animals
into coherent periods, and Francisco went throughout the lexical records and extra the gender markers
to the slips. the result of this research have been released within the ill-fated magazine of Mayan
Linguistics (Hopkins 1980a).

In Guatemala urban I had received the topographical maps for the zone of
Huehuetenango (Dirección normal de Cartografía, 1963; see box Notes, 6-12 September,
1964) and Francisco and that i pored over the maps position by means of position as I recorded the Chuj names,
most of which have been garbled within the Spanish models (the locative yich, 'base of', for example, was
almost necessarily transcribed Ix-). i finally dropped at the Instituto Nacional de Geografía
and to the Instituto Indigenista Nacional a corrected checklist, for what that used to be worthy. My research of
the formation of Chuj position names was once later publshed (Hopkins 1972), and all of the position names
were extra to my lexical documents. The Spanish position names stated listed here are the authentic names, as
registered within the Diccionario geográfico de Guatemala (Dirección basic de Cartografía 1961-
62).
A graduate scholar in Geology from LSU was once dwelling in Huehuetenango in 1964-65, and
he pointed out a few of the rocks and minerals we had names for. For the result of his learn and
related paintings within the Cuchumatanes by way of him and his colleagues, see Blount 1967 and Anderson et
al. 1973.

In August of 1965, Dennis Breedlove and Brent Berlin got here to Guatemala to collect
plants and speak about additional initiatives. With Francisco's support, they accrued close to Antigua and then
again within the Chuj sector, all jointly one other 292 specimens (Br 11397-11689). Brent and that i met
with Chris Day, one other Chicago graduate scholar (in the sphere engaged on Jacaltec whereas I was
working on Chuj, see Day 1973), a few comparative learn of numeral classifiers within the three
languages, Tzeltal, Jacaltec and Chuj. Over the following few years we collaborated in a preliminary
project, yet by no means introduced it to fruition. The plan used to be for Chris to assemble and evaluate the
vocabularies, Brent to jot down up the semantics (as in his 1964 and 1968 monographs), and for me
to research the grammars. merely the grammatical research reached ebook (Hopkins 1970).
However, all of the details I had generated concerning the Chuj numeral classifiers went into my
slip files.

I lower back to Chicago in September, 1965, to complete my graduate paintings and my doctoral
iv
dissertation (Hopkins 1967). I then took a task instructing Anthropology on the collage of Texas
in Austin, and persisted to method my Chuj fabrics. I married Kathryn Josserand in 1970 and
spent a 12 months in Milwaukee, the place she have been educating, after which again to Texas. In 1973 we
left Texas for Mexico urban, on the invitation of Angel Palerm to set up the Programa de
Lingüística on the new Centro de Investigaciones Superiores del INAH that he directed (now
CIESAS, the Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social). paintings on
Chuj was once deserted in desire of box education and study on languages towards Mexico City,
especially Otomanguean languages. many years later, simply because we had started to stick with the
developments in Maya epigraphy, we started to paintings on Mayan languages back, yet box work
was on Chol, now not Chuj.

I didn't go back to paintings on Chuj till 2005-6, while I obtained a countrywide Endowment for
the Humanities Documenting Endangered Languages Fellowship. This fellowship allowed me to
prepare my Chuj fabrics for digitization and archiving on the Archive of the Indigenous
Languages of Latin the USA (AILLA, www.ailla.utexas.org). Now, in 2012, all my recorded
materials on Chuj are archived. in addition to my transcribed box Notes and box images, a
revised model of my dissertation, rewritten in smooth sensible orthography, will whole this
collection.

The assortment comprises all of the recorded and transcribed Chuj texts, a few forty samples of
Chuj speech from 8 Chuj settlements, a few of which not exist. greater than twenty of
the settlements mentioned right here as position names have been deserted or destroyed within the genocide of the
so-called civil conflict (Manz 1988:83-89). it truly is my purpose so as to add to the AILLA archive collection
much of my written fabric to boot, together with broad notes made whereas discussing grammar
and lexicon with Francisco Santizo Andrés. All this fabric is to be freely on hand to anyone
interested, and an digital model of the current Dictionary may be extra to the collection.
In the summer season of 2011, I dug out of a closet a wood chest that contained 4 drawers
of lexical slip documents, untouched because approximately 1970. Over the following couple of months I transcribed the
lexical entries into an digital textual content dossier, rewriting the orthography into the now legitimate Chuj
script (Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala, 1988). i've got tried to ensure that those materials
include all of the information on plant and animal names, position names, numeral classifiers, etc., that I had
previously released.

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Extra resources for A DICTIONARY OF THE CHUJ (MAYAN) LANGUAGE

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Includes tz'ikin 'itaj, kaxlanh 'itaj, k'ap' taj tzil, k'u chi'il, pilox 'itaj, tuyal 'itaj. Ex: yitaj, his vegetables; yitajil chip'ej, vegetables to cook with meat. 'itz'inal, n. Place name: Cerro Ixtenam, San Mateo. A large rock outcrop to one side of the aldea yolk'ultak. " The Chuj story of its origin is that it is half of a rock outcrop (Spanish "peña") of the same shape and name as one somewhere in Mexico. Before the Sun came up for the first time the peña was growing bigger and bigger, almost up to the sky, but when the Sun came, in the world's first day, the force of its rays split the peña in half and tossed part of it into Mexico, where it is found today.

Iskínah, n. Corner of a house (inside corner), or a street corner. " Ex: yískinah, his corner (that he owns); yískinahil spat, the corner of his house. 'iskuwélah, n. School. " Ex: yiskuwélah, his school; yiskuwélahil chonhap', the school for a town. 'itaj, n ('anh). Greens, vegetables; radish, cabbage, beets, milkweed, and any edible greens or vegetables. Includes tz'ikin 'itaj, kaxlanh 'itaj, k'ap' taj tzil, k'u chi'il, pilox 'itaj, tuyal 'itaj. Ex: yitaj, his vegetables; yitajil chip'ej, vegetables to cook with meat.

Ik'el xil -ti', vtr phrase. To shave oneself. = xosel xil ti'. Ex: wik'el xil hin ti', I'm shaving myself. 'ik'anih, vin. To happen, to be possible. , an illness). 'ik'ti'ej, vtr. To talk about something, to have a conversation (literally, to carry the word, to take the mouth). Ex: hatunchi' skik'ti'ej, That's what we are talking about. 'ila', vtr. To watch, see. 'ilelih, vtr-dir. To learn. = 'ap'elih. Ex: syilelih, he's learning. 'ilum + N, n phrase. Watcher or guardian of N. Not used without the explanation of what is being watched.

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