By J. R. Partington
For almost six hundred years, from the battles of the early fourteenth century to the shedding of the atomic bomb at Hiroshima, firearms derived from gunpowder and different chemical substances outlined the frightful quantity of struggle. The equipment and fabrics utilized in global conflict i'd were usual to our distant ancestors. during this vintage paintings, first released in 1960, James Riddick Partington offers a world survey of the evolution of incendiary units, Greek fireplace, and gunpowder.Greek hearth, a composition Partington believes used to be made from a distilled petroleum fraction and different components (but no longer saltpetre), was once so much famously utilized in the sieges of Constantinople and the Crusades. Partington strikes from its antecedents—other incendiaries utilized in historical warfare—to eu gunpowder recipe books ( The Latin e-book of fireside, Bellifortis, and Feuerwerkbuch) and the historical past of infernal machines, mines, canon, small palms, and artillery. His publication comprises chapters on gunpowder and guns in Muslim lands, India, and China—including hearth books, using gunpowder as a propellant, the artillery of the Mughal Emperors, and using saltpetre in explosives. He strains the improvement of gunpowder to eleventh-century China and cites the 1st recognized point out and imagine of a firearm in 1326. "The background of gunpowder and firearms has attracted many authors with various pursuits. the overall historian needs to take account of significant innovations effecting revolutions within the lifetime of international locations. The historian of technology is anxious often with the discovery of gunpowder. The historian of know-how examines the improvement within the manufacture of explosives and guns, and how within which gunpowder has stumbled on functions within the peaceable arts. the army historian bargains normally with using gunpowder as an explosive and a propellant... and the advance of firearms and their use in battle. No fresh booklet in English (or for that subject in any language) has tried a concise survey of the subject."—from the Preface
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Extra resources for A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder
New York: Basic Books. Foley, Vernard and Keith Perry. 1979. In defense of Liber Igneum [iz'c]: Arab alchemy, Roger Bacon, and the introduction of gunpowder into the West. Journal for the History of Arabic Science 3: 200-218. Hackett, Jeremiah M. G. 1982. Bacon, Roger. In Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Vol. 2. Edited by J. R. Strayer. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Haldon, J. and M. Byrne. 1977. A possible solution to the problem of Greek fire. Byzantinische Zeitschrifl 70: 91-99. Hall, Bert S.
D. ) says^^ that mineral oils exude from the earth in Persia, Carthaginia, Macedonia Thrace and Illyria. In Media and Persia are burning fires, in Persia so large and bright that kitchens are constructed near them. ) Thomson^® mentioned a large bed of bitumen in Albania. D. 1173)®^ describes the petroleum wells at Pozzuoli. The use of incendiaries of the type described continued for many centuries. A few examples will be sufficient. D. 240) says that when Maximinus took the town of Aquileia, the inhabitants threw on the soldiers and the siege-engines pots filled with a burning mixture of sulphur (delov).
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A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder by J. R. Partington