By Steven N. Dworkin
This background of the Spanish lexicon is written from the interacting views of linguistic and cultural switch and within the gentle of advances within the examine of language touch and lexical swap. the writer describes the language inherited from spoken Latin within the Iberian Peninsula in the course of six centuries of Roman profession and examines the measure to which it imported phrases from the languages - of which in basic terms Basque survives - of pre-Roman Spain. He then exhibits how Germanic phrases have been imported both ultimately via Latin or outdated French or without delay by way of touch with the Visigoths. He describes the importation of Arabisms following the eighth-century Arab conquest of Spain, distinguishing these documented in medieval resources from these followed for daily use, a lot of which live to tell the tale in glossy Spanish. He considers the impression of outdated French and outdated Provencal and identifies overdue direct and oblique borrowings from Latin, together with the Italian components taken up throughout the Renaissance. After outlining minor impacts from languages equivalent to Flemish, Portuguese, and Catalan, Professor Dworkin examines the consequences at the lexicon of touch among Spanish and the indigenous languages of South and significant the United States, and the effect of touch with English. The ebook is geared toward complex scholars and students of Spanish linguistics and should curiosity experts in Hispanic literary and cultural stories.
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Additional resources for A History of the Spanish Lexicon: A Linguistic Perspective
G. cachorro ‘pup, whelp’, cencerro ‘cowbell’, chatarra ‘old iron’, gabarra ‘launch to transport freight to a boat’, modorro ‘drowsiness’, zamarra ‘sheepskin jacket’. She claims that Castilian was responsible for the westward spread of the sufﬁxal element of Basque origin. 28 A history of the Spanish lexicon sources (see IVPM) may well support this hypothesis of esquerdo as a late medieval Spanish loanword that ultimately ousted OPtg. s~eestro. Trask (1997: 416–21) calls into question or speciﬁcally rejects proposed Basque (as opposed to other possible pre-Roman) etyma for the following Spanish words: anchoa, ‘anchovy’, azcona ‘dart’,9 becerro ‘yearling calf ’,10 bizarro ‘gallant, brave’, boina ‘beret’, cazurro ‘rude, unsociable, malicious’, chamorro ‘close-cropped’, chaparro, ‘small, bushy oak shrub’, guijarro ‘pebble’, laya ‘agricultural implement’, mogote ‘isolated mound’, nava ‘broad plain’, parra ‘trained grapevine’, perro ‘dog’, pizarra ‘slate’, sapo ‘toad’, sarna ‘rash, itch’, sarrio ‘Pyrenean chamois’, sarro ‘incrustation, deposit’, vega ‘fertile plain’, zarza ‘blackberry, bramble’, zorro/zorra ‘fox’.
Gos ‘dog’ also of pre-Roman origin? As he did with regard to the genesis of Sp. v. gos) suggests an onomatopoeic origin for the Catalan noun and the many alleged Romance reﬂexes of that same base that he adduces. I note as a parallel that the etymology of E. dog is a long-standing crux of English diachronic lexicology. 34 A history of the Spanish lexicon Portuguese forms to the family of CONVERSARE ‘to live, abide, dwell’. ) origin of Sp. bruja, Ptg. bruxa ‘witch’ and its Catalan (bruixa), Gascon (broucho, brouche), and southern French (bruèis[sa], breicha, broucha) cognates.
The occasional pre-Roman word from the Iberian Peninsula managed to spread beyond the local varieties of spoken Latin and became incorporated into the language of the Roman Empire. Soldiers and government ofﬁcials returning to their homes in Italy, as well as merchants who traveled between Rome and the Iberian Peninsula, would have played a role in the diffusion of such lexical items. According to Pliny (Historia naturalis, 8, 217), the noun cuniculus ‘rabbit, hare’ originated in a pre-Roman language spoken in Hispania.
A History of the Spanish Lexicon: A Linguistic Perspective by Steven N. Dworkin