By Dejin Li, Meizhen Cheng
A pragmatic chinese language Grammar for Foreigners used to be first released in 1988 and has been reprinted for plenty of occasions and has accomplished frequent impression. This ebook is the revised version which makes very important and helpful amendment to the unique version in keeping with the feedback and reviews of the academics and scholars. This publication offers concise, exact and particular factors of the grammar issues. within the element of content material, along with introducing the main easy and functional grammatical principles, it additionally has more effective chapters.
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Additional resources for A Practical Chinese Grammar for Foreigners (with Workbook)
Way fp _______________________________________ A: The day before that we were not really sure if it was okay. The engineers there seem to be coming in very late; at least that is what I thought. Conjunctions or connective expressions function to provide a temporal or causal linkage between two adjacent intonation units and often appear separately in an intonation unit. An example of this is line 1 in (1). Reactive tokens and discourse markers account for something like 10% of the intonation units in a sampled two-party conversation.
Another feeling is that everything works like this, the way the food chain works. Yeah. One entity checks another entity, but in the end they maintain a state of equilibrium. We have seen then that intonation units, as a prosodic concept, correspond to a number of different grammatical units in Mandarin Chinese: a. b. c. d. e. f. Clauses (with or without a connective) Pieces of clauses (clause fragment, NP, verbal expression) Connective words (conjunctions and adverbial connectives) Orientational phrases (spatial, temporal, epistemic) Reactive tokens and discourse markers Others (pause fillers, false starts, and other disfluencies) A sample of five-minute two-party conversation yields the following distribution of structural units.
Types of grammatical units of IUs Grammatical unit 1. Full clause 2. Elliptical clause 3. Multi-clause complex 4. Clause fragment a. Cls 5. VP &VC 6. VP/VC fragment 7. NP 8. NP fragment 9. Connective& DM 10. PP& adverbial 11. Reactive token 12. 5 5 10 4 100 Table 1 shows that there was an unmistakable tendency for single intonation units to correspond to grammatical units. Full clauses, elliptical clauses, multi-clauses, VPs, NPs, connectives, PPs, adverbials, reactive tokens and discourse markers, as independent IUs, are all grammatical units and these together with the grammatical unit termed ‘cls-’ in Table 1 (see below) comprise 88% of the IUs.
A Practical Chinese Grammar for Foreigners (with Workbook) by Dejin Li, Meizhen Cheng