By John F. O'Hanlon
Within the decade and a part because the booklet of the second one variation of A User?s advisor to hoover expertise there were many very important advances within the box, together with spinning rotor gauges, dry mechanical pumps, magnetically levitated rapid pumps, and ultraclean method designs. those, besides enhanced cleansing and meeting thoughts have made contamination-free production a fact. Designed to bridge the space in either wisdom and coaching among designers and finish clients of vacuum apparatus, the 3rd variation bargains a pragmatic viewpoint on today?s vacuum expertise. With a spotlight at the operation, realizing, and choice of kit for commercial techniques utilized in semiconductor, optics, packaging, and comparable coating applied sciences, A User?s advisor to hoover expertise, 3rd version presents a close remedy of this crucial box. whereas emphasizing the basics and concerning major issues now not competently coated in different places, the textual content avoids subject matters now not correct to the common consumer.
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Extra resources for A User's Guide to Vacuum Technology
Avogadro's number of molecules is known as a mole. In SI, the unit of volume is the m3 and the unit of mass is the kg. " For example one kg-mole of oxygen contains 6 . 0 2 2 5 2 ~ 1 0molecules ~~ and weighs 32 kg. 45 kg/m3. 6 Graham's Law In the nineteenth century Graham studied the rate of efksion of gases through very small holes in porous membranes. He observed the rate of effusion to be inversely proportional to the square root of the density of the gas provided that the pressure and temperature were held constant.
9. 3. Ref. 2, pp. 135-205 and 291-337. 4. S. , J. M. , Wiley, New York, 1962, p. 35. 5. Langmuir, Phys. , 1, 337 (1913). 6. Ref. 6. 7. Ref. 4, p. 68. 8. H. von Ubisch, Vak. , 6, 175 (1957). 9. M. Pirani and J. Yarwood, Principles of Vacuum Engineering, Reinhold, New York, 1961. p. 100. 10. For example, see L. M. Lund and A. S. Berman, J. Appl. , 37,2489 (1966). 11. C. Neumann, Math Phys. , 24,49 (1872). 12. J. C. Maxwell, Philos. Trans. R. London, 170,231 (1879). 13. M. C. I. Siu, J. Vac. Sci. , 10,368 (1973).
A is the free-molecular heat conductivity and al,a 2 , a are the accommodation coefficients of the cold surface, hot surface, and system, respectively. If molecules can thermally equilibrate with the surface, say by making many small collisions on a rough surface, a will have a value that approaches unity. If however, the same surface is smooth and the molecule recoils without gaining or losing energy, a will approach zero. The kinetic picture of heat conductivity is rather like viscosity except that energy transfer determines the thermal conductivity, and momentum transfer determines the viscous drag.
A User's Guide to Vacuum Technology by John F. O'Hanlon