By Michael J Lannoo
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Extra resources for Amphibian declines : a United States' response to the global phenomenon
John A. Phillips. The Chair, Dr. James P. Collins from Arizona State University, invited prominent amphibian biologists and other scientists to participate. The following important topics were covered: the geography of amphibian declines, UV-B radiation, deformities, toxins, viruses 18 D E C L I N I N G P O P U L A T I O N S TA S K F O R C E and other diseases, climatic change, and immunology. It became clear that an informations system, modified monitoring protocols for specific areas, and a major study of amphibians along the American Cordillera were needed.
At one extreme is the mud-nesting frog (Leptodactylus bufonius) that lays its eggs suspended in foam inside nests of mud at the edge of small depressions. , 1974). Because female mud-nesting frogs are not dependent on standing water, they can deposit successive clutches throughout the season. Likewise, a Physalaemus species (Leptodactylidae) from Brazil has the flexibility to lay its foam nest full of eggs on the water surface (if available) or to lay its foam nest on the ground or in bromeliads near a depression that will fill with water once it rains (Haddad and Pombal, 1998).
First, because journals are biased against studies reporting null results, those studies failing to show evidence of a decline may not be as prevalent in the literature. By contacting amphibian population and community ecologists and requesting the use of unpublished data 14 P H I L O S O P H Y, VA L U E J U D G M E N T S , A N D D E C L I N E sets (including those in unpublished theses and dissertations), one can attempt to eliminate such a bias. Second, reviewing the existing literature to look for large-scale, interspecific patterns does nothing to evaluate whether reported declines represent real declines or simply natural population fluctuations.
Amphibian declines : a United States' response to the global phenomenon by Michael J Lannoo