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This reference examines the pathology and ensuing body structure of a number of complex pulmonary and pulmonary vascular strategies. It specializes in clinical and surgical administration suggestions for the ailments addressed in addition to a holistic method of the care of sufferers in such occasions.
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Extra resources for Illustrated Guide to the Human Body: The Respiratory System (Facts on File)
The warmth soothes the nose and helps to clear the airways, and if medication such as menthol is added, the benefits are increased. Special vaporizers can be bought that work for several hours, such as overnight in the bedroom; these may also be beneficial for relieving bronchitis. 35 Hay fever (seasonal rhinitis) Respiratory guidance This is a common allergy where the body reacts abnormally to breathed-in pollen, stimulating the release of histamine. This in turn swells blood vessels and produces a runny, itchy, blocked nose; sneezing; bloodshot eyes; and itching or soreness in the mouth or throat.
The upper portions of the kidneys are behind the lower ribs due to the upward dome of the diaphragm. Clavicle Cervical vertebrae (neck) ● ● Thoracic vertebrae ● Scapula ● Lumbar vertebra ● ● ● Left kidney Right kidney Ribs and intercostals The ribs are not complete arches of bone. The portion of each rib nearest the sternum and joining to the sternum is made mostly of cartilage, giving a flexible, springy consistency to the whole thoracic cage. Anterior view Posterior view Rib Bony portion of rib ● ● Cartilaginous portion of rib Sternum ● Intercartilaginous muscles ● ● Transversus thoracis muscles ● ● Intercartilaginous muscles ● ● Diaphragm © DIAGRAM External intercostal muscles 64 Chest landmarks Lobes and pleurae Lung and pleural borders: right side The slippery pleural membranes or pleurae both wrap around the lungs, and line the inside of the thoracic cavity (see page 74).
Ciliated cells that line the airways move mucus (thick, slimy fluid) toward the pharynx (throat) to be removed by swallowing. This gets rid of the dust, bacteria, and other small items trapped in the mucus, and helps to clean and protect the lining. 1 41 ● ● Base of cilium Cell nucleus ● ● Microtubules anchored into cell Cell membrane Cross section through cilium 9 pairs of outer microtubules ● 2 1 pair of central microtubules ● ● 3 Ciliary motion 1 Power stroke. 2 Recovery stroke. 3 Direction of propulsion of substance (for example, mucus) by wavelike ciliary motion.
Illustrated Guide to the Human Body: The Respiratory System (Facts on File) by Diagram Group